DML triggers is a special type of stored procedure that automatically Fires when a data manipulation language (DML) events like CREATE, ALTER, DROP, GRANT, DENY, REVOKE, or UPDATE STATISTICS takes place that affects the table or view defined in the trigger. DML events include INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements.

  • The DDL triggers are useful in the following cases:
  • Record changes in the database schema.
  • Prevent some specific changes to the database schema.
  • Respond to a change in the database schema.


We create an “AfterUpdateOrder” trigger that fires after an UPDATE operation on the “Orders” table.
The trigger is set to execute FOR EACH ROW, meaning it will execute once for each row that is updated.
The NEW keyword refers to the new values of the row being updated.
Whenever an UPDATE operation is performed on the “Orders” table, the trigger will insert a new row into the “OrderAuditLog” table, capturing the OrderID, the action performed (UPDATE), and the current timestamp.


EVENTDATA() function is used within DML triggers to retrieve information about the event that caused the trigger to fire, such as the details of the data manipulation operation (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) and the values involved.

Please note that the structure of the XML returned by EVENTDATA() can be quite complex and may contain various elements and attributes. You can explore the XML structure and extract specific information based on your requirements. Here are a few common elements and attributes you might find in the XML returned by EVENTDATA():

EVENT_INSTANCE: Contains information about the event itself.
EventType: Indicates the type of event (e.g., INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE).
PostTime: Timestamp of the event.
TSQLCommand: Contains the T-SQL command that caused the trigger to fire.
ServerPrincipalName: The name of the user or login executing the command.
LoginType: The type of login (e.g., SQL, Windows).
DatabaseName: The name of the database where the event occurred.
SchemaName and ObjectName: The schema and object name affected by the event.

The EVENTDATA() function in SQL Server is a powerful feature that enables the capture and analysis of essential information about events occurring within a database system. It plays a crucial role in the implementation of triggers, particularly Data Manipulation Language (DML) triggers, which are specialized database objects that automatically respond to changes in data. This function provides a detailed snapshot of the event, supplying valuable insights that facilitate auditing, logging, and maintaining data integrity.


When a DML trigger is fired—triggered by actions such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operations—the EVENTDATA() function comes into play. It returns event-specific information in the form of XML data. This XML data encapsulates a variety of elements and attributes, each serving as a window into different aspects of the event. This function acts as an informational bridge between the event and the trigger, allowing the trigger to respond appropriately and capture relevant details.

The returned XML from EVENTDATA() typically contains several key sections. One of the primary elements is EVENT_INSTANCE, which carries metadata about the event itself. It reveals the type of event, such as an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operation, and provides a timestamp indicating when the event occurred. This temporal context is essential for tracking and analyzing data changes over time.

Another significant section within the XML is TSQLCommand, which furnishes the actual T-SQL command that triggered the event. This command can be crucial for understanding the nature of the change, especially in complex scenarios involving multiple modifications within a single transaction.

Additionally, ServerPrincipalName and LoginType attributes offer insights into the identity of the user or login executing the command. This is vital for security and accountability purposes, allowing administrators to track who is making changes to the database.

The DatabaseName attribute specifies the database in which the event occurred, providing context for multi-database environments. This is particularly useful when a single SQL Server instance manages multiple databases, helping to pinpoint the location of the event.

Furthermore, SchemaName and ObjectName attributes identify the specific schema and object (table, view, etc.) affected by the event. These details are indispensable for determining where changes are happening and which data is being modified.

In essence, the EVENTDATA() function empowers developers and administrators to create responsive triggers that cater to specific events, ensuring data accuracy, consistency, and traceability. By leveraging the information provided by EVENTDATA(), organizations can implement robust auditing mechanisms, enabling them to track historical changes and maintain compliance with regulatory requirements. The function also facilitates debugging and troubleshooting by shedding light on the circumstances surrounding an event.

In conclusion, the EVENTDATA() function in SQL Server is a versatile tool that bridges the gap between data manipulation events and trigger responses. Its provision of XML-based event details empowers database professionals to design and implement sophisticated mechanisms for tracking and managing changes, ultimately contributing to the overall reliability and integrity of the database system.

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